WantedPS — Part 8

Содержание

Вредные и опасные условия труда: что нового в 2014 году

№ 426-ФЗ), заметно изменившие правила оценки условий труда на рабочих местах, определения размера платежей в Пенсионный фонд и получения права на досрочный выход на пенсию для некоторых категорий работников. Новые нормы трудового и социального права будут иметь далеко идущие последствия, многие из которых на данный момент сложно предугадать.

Как известно, организации, в которых имеются рабочие места с вредными и тяжелыми условиями труда, должны отчислять в Пенсионный фонд дополнительные взносы на финансирование страховой части пенсии соответствующих категорий работников.

Вредные условия труда таблица

Не проводится обучение по безопасности труда

Рабочее место считается аттестованным, если на рабочем месте отсутствуют (или соответствуют допустимым величинам) опасные и вредные производственные факторы, а также выполняются требования по травмоопасности.

При отнесении условий труда к 3 классу рабочее место признается условно аттестованным с указанием соответствующего класса и степени

Досрочные пенсии за работу во вредных условиях труда

№ 16/19па) необходимы следующие документы:

Пенсионный фонд РФ вправе требовать от физических и юридических лиц представления документов, необходимых для расчета пенсии и проверять обоснованность их выдачи (п. 3 ст. 18 Федерального закона № 173-ФЗ).

Работодатель несет ответственность за достоверность сведений в документах для установления и выплаты пенсии, возмещая ущерб, равный сумме выплат излишней части пенсии (ст.

О вредных условиях труда!

То есть, кроме выявления вредных факторов, должна произойти оценка конкретных вредных факторов на конкретных рабочих местах. На что же влияют результаты проведенной Аттестации рабочих мест?

7) установления дополнительного тарифа страховых взносов в Пенсионный фонд Российской Федерации с учетом класса (подкласса) условий труда на рабочем месте;

8) расчета скидок (надбавок) к страховому тарифу на обязательное социальное страхование от несчастных случаев на производстве и профессиональных заболеваний»

Цитата: «Статья12 часть 8.

Оформляем льготы за работу во вредных и опасных условиях труда

Например, на подземных горных работах или в зонах радиоактивного заражения или для медицинских работников с вредными условиями. Трудовой кодекс возлагает на работодателя обязанность определить, есть ли вредный или опасный производственный фактор в конкретном виде работ (ст. 212). Именно работодатель, проведя аттестацию рабочих мест[2] по условиям труда (а также учитывая отраслевые списки производств, цехов, профессий и должностей с тяжелыми и вредными условиями ), должен решить, какие из работ, проводимых в компании, следует включать в специальный перечень и утверждать в качестве локального акта.

Помощь: Вредные и тяжелые условия труда: порядок и методика определения, а также предусмотренные компенсации

сохраняется здоровье работающих, но и создаются предпосылки для поддержания высокого уровня работоспособности.

Допустимые условия труда — совокупность факторов производственной среды и трудового процесса, уровни которых не превышают установленных гигиенических нормативов для рабочих мест, а возможные изменения функционального состояния организма восстанавливаются во время регламентируемого

Рекомендации по проведению аттестации рабочих мест по условиям труда по отрасли Физическая культура и спорт в городе Москве — 8. Этапы проведения аттестации рабочих мест по условиям труда

В настоящее время этот вопрос решается работодателем в организации, где проводится аттестация рабочих мест по условиям труда.

В состав аттестационной комиссии организации рекомендуется включать руководителей структурных подразделений организации, юристов, специалистов служб охраны труда, специалистов по кадрам, специалистов по труду и заработной плате, представителей лабораторных подразделений, главных специалистов, медицинских работников, представителей профсоюзных организаций или других уполномоченных работниками представительных органов, представителей комитетов (комиссий) по охране, уполномоченных (доверенных) лиц по охране труда профессиональных союзов или трудового коллектива, представителей Аттестующей организации.

Аттестационная комиссия формируется, как правило, из специалистов, прошедших подготовку по общим вопросам аттестации рабочих мест по условиям труда в организациях, уполномоченных на этот вид обучения федеральным органом исполнительной власти, осуществляющим функции по выработке государственной политики и нормативно-правовому регулированию в сфере труда.

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Friday, January 10, 2014

10 Ways to fix SETUP and HOLD violation: Static Timing Analysis (STA) Basic (Part-8)

  • Part1 ->Timing Paths
  • Part2 ->Time Borrowing
  • Part3a ->Basic Concept Of Setup and Hold
  • Part3b ->Basic Concept of Setup and Hold Violation
  • Part3c ->Practical Examples for Setup and Hold Time / Violation
  • Part4a ->Delay — Timing Path Delay
  • Part4b ->Delay — Interconnect Delay Models
  • Part4c ->Delay — Wire Load Model
  • Part5a ->Maximum Clock Frequency
  • Part5b ->Examples to calculate the “Maximum Clock Frequency” for different circuits.
  • Part 6a ->How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (basic example)
  • Part 6b ->Continue of How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (Advance examples)
  • Part 6c ->Continue of How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (more advance examples)
  • Part 7a ->Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Wire Length On the Slew)
  • Part 7b ->Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Size of the Transistor On the Slew)
  • Part 7c ->Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Threshold voltage On the Slew)
  • Part 8 ->10 ways to fix Setup and Hold Violation.

10 Ways to fix SETUP and HOLD violation :

  • Different formulas + explanation to identify the type of violation in design.
  • How to fix those violations?
  • Different methods of Increasing and Decreasing the Delay in the circuit to fix these type of violations?

And Now it’s the time to list down different methods to fix these violations. I have also explained in brief each and every method, which also referring previous post for reference. One point to remember here that Fixing the Setup and Hold Violation are reverse in nature. All the methods which are applicable to fix one type of methods , hold true and can be apply to fix other type of if we will do the opposite thing. E.g — if setup can be fix by adding 1 buffer in some path then Hold can be fix by removing buffer in that path. (You will see these things below in the post)

Это интересно:  Установление отцовства через суд

8 Ways To Fix Setup violation:

  • It will reduce the cell delay but increase the wire delay. So if we can reduce more cell delay in comparison to wire delay, the effective stage delay decreases.

  • Adding 2 inverters in place of 1 buffer, reducing the overall stage delay.
    • Adding inverter decreases the transition time 2 times then the existing buffer gate. Due to that, the RC delay of the wire (interconnect delay) decreases.
    • As such cell delay of 1 buffer gate ≈ cell delay of 2 Inverter gate
    • So stage delay (cell delay + wire delay) in case of single buffer
    • Low Vt decrease the transition time and so propagation delay decreases.
    • HVT/NVT/LVT type cells have same size and pin position. In both leakage current and speed, LVT>NVT>HVT. So replace HVT with NVT or LVT will speed up the timing without disturb layout.
    • Negative effect : Leakage current/power also increases.

    • Explained the basic and details in the previous post
    • Note: Normally larger cell has higher speed. But some special cell may have larger cell slower than normal cell. Check the technology library timing table to find out these special cells. Increasing driver is very commonly used in setup fix.
    • Negative effect: Higher power consumption and more area used in the layout.
    • I have notice one explanation in book . I am copying and pasting (not 100%) that here because I like that one. J Marked the important part by Bold.
      • The basic layout technique for reducing the gate delay consists in connecting MOS devices in parallel.
      • The equivalent width of the resulting MOS device is the sum of each elementary gate width. Both nMOS and pMOS devices are designed using parallel elementary devices.
      • Most cell libraries include so-called x1, x2, x4, x8 inverters.
      • The x1 inverter has the minimum size, and is targeted for low speed, low power operations.
      • The x2 inverter uses two devices x1 inverters, in parallel. The resulting circuit is an inverter with twice the current capabilities. The output capacitance may be charge and discharged twice as fast as for the basic inverter (see below figure), because the Ron resistance of the MOS device is divided by two. The price to pay is a higher power consumption.
      • The equivalent Ron resistance of the x4 inverter is divided by four.
      • The clock signals, bus, ports and long wires with severe time constraints use such high drive circuits.

    • Some time we insert the buffer to decrease over all delay in case of log wire.
    • Inserting buffer decreases the transition time, which decreases the wire delay.
    • If, the amount of wire delay decreases due to decreasing of transition time > Cell delay of buffer, over all delay decreases.
    • Negative Effect : Area will increase and increase in the power consumption.

    • Concepts of Repeaters are same as I have discussed in “Inserting the Buffer” (above point). Just I am trying to explain this in a different way but the over concept are same.
    • Long distance routing means a huge RC loading due to a series of RC delays, as shown in figure. A good alternative is to use repeaters, by splitting the line into several pieces. Why can this solution be better in terms of delay? Because the gate delay is quite small compared to the RC delay.

    • In case of Interconnect driven by a single inverter, the propagation delay become
      • Tdelay= tgate+ nR.nC = tgate + n­ 2 RC
    • If two repeaters are inserted, the delay becomes:
      • Tdelay=tgate (delay of inverter) + 2tgate (delay of repeater) +3RC = 3 tgate + 3RC
    • So you can see how RC delay is impacting in case of non-repeater in the circuit.
    • Consequently, if the gate delay is much smaller than the RC delay, repeaters improve the switching speed performances, at the price of higher power consumption.
    • Below figure helps you to understand the practical use of this.

    • Let’s assume there are 2 gate (GATE A and GATE B) separated by 1000um. There is another GATE C placed at the distance of 900um from GATE A.
    • If we re-position the GATE C at 500um from GATE A (center of GATE A and B), overall delay between GATE A and B decreases.
    • You will get the clear understanding by first post and the following diagram.
    • Note: The placement in layout may prevent such movement. Always use layout viewer to check if there are any spare space to move the critical cell to an optimal location.

    • By delaying the clock to the end point can relax the timing of the path, but you have to make sure the downstream paths are not critical paths.
    • Related to clock skew basic – I will discuss that in SI section.

    2 Ways to Fix Hold Violations:

    • Adding buffer / Inverter pairs /delay cells to the data path helps to fix the hold violation.
    • Note: The hold violation path may have its start point or end point in other setup violation paths. So we have to take extra care before adding the buffer/delay.
      • E.G. if the endpoint of hold violation path has setup violation with respect to some other path, insert the buffer/delay nearer to start point of hold violation path. Else the setup violation increases in other path.
      • if the start point of hold violation path has setup violation with respect to some other path, insert the buffer/delay nearer to end point of hold violation path. Else the setup violation increases in other path.
    • I am sure you may be asking what is this and why?
    • Below figure and explanation can help you to understand this.
    • From below figure, you can also conclude that don’t add buffer/delay in the common segment of 2 paths (where one path has hold violation and other setup violation).

    • It is better to reduce the cells closer to the capture flip flop because there is less likely hood of affecting other paths and causing new errors.

    • Make modification to the data path only.
      • Adjusting register location or removing/adding buffers to the clock path will fix the violation that but it may cause more violations for some other paths which may not present before.
    • First try to fix setup violation as much as possible. Then later on start fixing hold violation.
    • In general, hold time will be fixed during back-end work (during PNR) while building clock tree. If u r a front-end designer, concentrate on fixing setup time violations rather than hold violations.
    • Fix all the hold violation, if you have to choose between setup and hold.
      • If a chip is done with some setup violations it can work by reducing the frequency.
      • If a chip is done with hold violations, we have “JUST DUMP” the chip.

    VMware Arena

    Reserved Space for Virtualization

    vSphere Distributed Switch Part 8 – Migrate VMkernel Network from Standard Switch to Distributed Switch without downtime

    In this post, I am going to migrate my VMkernel network (vmk0: 192.168.0.125) of my ESXi host from the standard switch called vSwitch0 to my distributed switch called DSwitch-Production.

    In the below screenshot, You can see my the vmkernel network vmk0 is in the vSwitch0 of my ESXi host.

    Prerequisites for the Migration without downtime

    1. Ensure that your ESXi host has been added to dvswitch before initiating this migration. (My ESXi host called 192.168.0.125″ is already added to dvswitch)

    2.Ensure that you have network connectivity of your distributed switch uplink is having same or relevant VLANs trunked as same as your standard switch uplink. Compare the configuration of your destination dvswitch uplink with your existing uplink of standard switch and also ensure that they are configured identically on the physical switch also. (My dvswitch uplink vmnic1 and vmnic 3 is having same network connectivity as my standard switch uplink vmnic0)

    3.It is best practice to have access to remote console of your ESX/ESXi host, when migrating the vmkernel or service console network. This will help to troubleshoot your host if any issues happened.

    4.Ensure that the dvportGroups is going to be used for vmkernel or service console is configured to match with the existing port group configuration (VLAN,NIC Teaming) on the standard switch.

    Login to your vCenter server using vSphere web client and click on your distributed switch (DSwitch-Production). Click on Actions tab and Select Add and Manage Hosts from the options.

    Select Manage Host Networking from the task and click on Next

    Select your ESX/ESXi host form the list to manage its networking on this distributed switch and click on Next.

    Select Manage VMkernel adapters. This option allows you to add or migrate VMkernel network adapters to dvswitch, assign them to dvportgroup, configure VMkernel adapter settings or remove the existing ones. Click on Next.

    Under On Other Switches Section, Select the VMkernel Network (vmk0) on vSwitch0, which is on the port group “Management Network” on the standard switch (vSwitch0) of my ESXi host. Select the VMkernel adapter from the below list and click on Assign Port Group

    Select the destination dvportGroup (DVPG-Management Network) in dvswitch (DSwitch-Production) where you want to migrate your existing VMkernel port group from your standard switch. Click on Ok.

    Now Review the Migration options like Source Port group and Destination Port Group. As part of this Migration, ESXi host VMkernel Adapter vmk0 is going to migrate from the port group (Management network) on the Standard switch vSwitch0 to dvportgroup (DVPG-Management Network) on the distributed switch (DSwitch-Production). Click on Next to continue.

    Analyze the impact of this migration or configuration. There is No impact since we have uplink assigned at the dvswitch. Click on Next.

    Review the Selections and click on Finish to complete the migration

    After the migration completed Successfully, You can see the VMkernel adapter (192.168.0.125) is in the distributed switch (DSwitch-Production) and in dvportgroup called DVPG-Management network.

    I hope this is informative for you. Thanks for Reading. Be Social and share it in social media if you feel worth sharing it.

    Sayem’s Blog

    «Technology makes it possible for people to gain control over everything, except over technology»

    WINDOWS Server 2012-Part 8- Working with Windows Deployment Service –Part1

    Who wants to install thousands of workstations using Windows OS DVD manually and configure other predefined software on those devices as your business needs? No one, I guess!!
    Microsoft comes with a handy solution to eliminate such issue and released Windows Deployment Service to minimize the manual and repetitive works we do while configuring a new PC or server.

    How to install Windows Deployment Service

    To install Windows Deployment Service go to your Windows 2012 Server manager and Open Add roles and Features Wizard

    • Select Windows Deployment Service role and click next

    • Select the Deployment Server and Transport Server role

    • Click on Install button

    Basic setup of WDS (Windows Deployment Service)

    • After successful installation of WDS you can find it in Tools menu in Server Manager

    • Expand the WDS service and right click on the WDS server
    • Click on Configure Server menu

    • Select Integrated with Active Directory and click next

    • Select the path to which you will keep the boot images (C: is not recommended)

    • If you have DHCP and WDS services installed on the same machine you must check those boxes otherwise PXE boot will not work. DHCP adn WDS service use the same port.

    • Select the PXE Server Initial Settings ( In my case I have selected Respond to all client computer)

    • To add images it is recommended to add the image group first. Right click on the Install Images tab and Click Add Image Group

    • Enter a name of the group and click ok

    • Right click on group name and Click Add Install Image

    • Browse the file location of the OS image

    • From your Windows OS DVD, go to Sources folder and Select install.wim file and click on Open

    • The wizard will show you the available images. You can rename the image name by un-checking the checkbox on that page

    • Now you can see the images under the group you have created

    • Now you have to configure the boot images otherwise PXE boot will not work. To configure it, right click on the Boot Images folder and Click Add Boot Image menu

    • Select the boot.wim file from your WIN OS DVDSources folder

    • Now you can see the boot image on the boot images folder

    • Right click on Active Directory Prestaged Devices and click Add Device menu

    • In this wizard you have to enter the detail information of your target device to which you want to install OS using WDS. Here device ID should be the MAC address of that device. You can also configure the OU in advance to which your newly install Server/PC will move after joining it in AD

    • Select the Server name from which the system will download the PXE boot image (in this case it is the name of your WDS server) and also configure the PXE prompt policy, meaning how PXE boot will be triggered in the device booting stage.

    • You can select xml based file to automate you installation. Just for now, I am keeping it blank. I will discuss on this topic in details later.

    • You PXE boot configuration is ready

    • Now try to boot a device and check whether WDS is working

    Griffon’s IT Library

    Simple IT Library for the rest of us

    MDT 2012 PART VIII – Automatically Set computer Name

    Today, again, we will speak a little bit about MDT 2012. The idea of this post came because of a discussion we had with one of our customers. This customer was not able to automate the deployment process because by default MDT generates a random computer name. The customer had first to rename the computer before joining it into the domain makin impossible for him to fully automate the deployment process.

    This post will quickly show you can use the CustomSettings.in (or equivalent rules GUI editor) to automatically set a computer name based on your naming convention. You will see that MDT 2012 can be tweaked in order to fit your situation.

    Set computer Name using OSDComputerName variable

    Common Scenarios

    By default, MDT 2012 allows you to define some rules in order to set the correct computer name during the deployment process. In order to set computer name during the deployment process, you can use the variable OSDComputername. In order to define the rule that will be used to set the proper computer name, you have to understand the naming conventions used within your customer organization. In our situation, a naming convention was available (sweet) and the computer name to be generated would be the combination of a prefix text and the serial number of the machine. In other words, the computer naming convention was something like

    WS-%SerialNumber%

    Based on this naming convention, it’s easy to automate the process with MDT 2012. Open the Deployment workbench > right-click on your deployment share and select properties.

    Click on picture for better resolution

    In the properties page, click on the rules tab. In this tab, add the following line

    OSDComputerName=WS-%SerialNumber%

    Click on picture for better resolution

    By adding this line, you simply tell MDT to set the computername to the value you’ve just defined. Where MDT will find the %SerialNumber% value ? Basically, MDT will run a series of scripts that will be performing wmi queries and store the results into variables. %SerialNumber% is one of the variable. MDT has more than 100 pre-defined variables that you can use. You can see the list of available variables by running the script ZTIGather.wsf and by having a look at the file ZTIGather.xml. Both files are located under %DriveLetter%DeploymentShareScripts. You can use other variable as well such as

    • %Architecture% (ex: x86 or x64)
    • %Model% (ex: Vaio xxxx or Inspiron. )
    • %Make% (Dell,HP,Sony…)
    • %IsLaptop% or %IsDesktop% or %IsServer% or %IsVM% (to detect if the client is a laptop or a desktop or Server or a VM)

    Using multiple variables within the Customsettings.ini file (or the rules tab via the GUI), we can accommodate quite some situations. As an example, some organizations in their naming convention might require to make a distinction between desktop and laptop (or even server). Another common scenario is to make the distinction between virtual machine and physical machines. If you encounter such situation, you can configure your rules as shown in the following screenshot

    Click on picture for better resolution

    Another common scenario for naming convention is to use a site code in the computer name. Depending on your network infrastructure and your MDT setup, you might be able to automatically set the name of the computer. For this one, I have to say that I had to google a little bit in order to find the variable that I could use. All the posts I’ve found are using the variable %DefaultGateway%

    So, if you need to make a distinction between two locations, you could edit your CustomSettings.ini file (see screenshot below) and append this kind of information as long as you are using default gateway information. In my case, we generally perform the deployment in a staging area where the default gateway is always the same whatever the location the computer will be send to.

    Click on picture for better resolution

    Advanced tweaks on OSDComputerName variable

    So far, we have seen that there are a bunch of possibilities in the process of automatically set the computer name. You can use variables, type of computers….whatever. Since, a lot of us are working with virtualization solution; there will be a situation were we will encounter a small issue when trying to automatically set the computername using the serial number variable.

    Indeed, there is a technical limitation in the number of characters you can use in a computer name. a computername cannot exceed 15 characters. Serial numbers generated by hypervisor are generally longer than 15 characters. I had the same issue (computer name length) with physical laptop. Some manufacturer might have longer serial numbers than other. When combining the prefix and the serial number, the number of characters were exceding the limit of 15.

    You have two options to solve this issue. The first one is quite simple and consist of using again the Customsettings.ini files (or rules via the GUI). Yes, you read it correctly, you can perform some string manipulation directly in the GUI. The other option would be to create your own script and perform the modification that you need in order to generate a valid computer name.

    In the screenshot below, I’ve defined a rule that would take the last 8 digit of the serial number.

    Click on picture for better resolution


    You can check that during the deployment process, the computer name will be generated based on the rule you have defined.

    Click on picture for better resolution

    As mentioned, the other option would be to use a script. In MDT 2012 Update 1, you should know that you can use PowerShell Script. Below, you can see a screenshot of a powershell script that perform a rename operation. In a future post, we will briefly describe how to have this script running within your MDT infrastucture.

    Click on picture for better resolution

    Final notes

    As you can see, out-of-the-box, MDT 2012 offers you already a large set of options when you need to automate the computer name part of your deployment process. By working with the MDT rules (the Customsettings.ini file), you can have a complete control of your deployment process. By tweaking this file, you should be able to achieve a zero touch installation using only MDT.

    In the coming posts, we will see how to use PowerShell script and we will finally focus on how to achieve the zero touch installation

    Статья написана по материалам сайтов: black-lev.ru, www.vlsi-expert.com, www.vmwarearena.com, msayem.wordpress.com, c-nergy.be.

    »

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